Kirat Limbu Culture - Anthropological Investigation

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba


Copyright © 2023 Nawa Raj Subba

All rights reserved.

ISBN 978-9937-1-3552-8

Kirat Limbu Culture - Anthropological Investigation


My Grandpa Late Ashal Bahadur Phyang Samba and Grandma Late Sancha Rani Phyang SambaAs the author of this book, I, Nawa Raj Subba, humbly offer my dedication to the cherished memory of my beloved late Jiba (Grangpa) Ashal Bahadur Phyanghang Samba and my beloved Baju (Grandma) Sancha Rani Phyanghang Samba. I respect their godlike presence, which has inspired my life.

Kirat Limbu Culture – The Inspiration Behind This Book

As consciousness entered my body, my mind began to move freely. Who made this tree, this stone, and that mountain? I wondered where these rivers, canals, and seas would end up. Why are there mountains, rivers, streams, planets, earth, moon, stars, and the universe? Parents, teachers, and religious texts could not satisfy my insatiable childhood curiosity.

The realization that social status, inequality, untouchability, caste, politics, history, and religion were all human products piqued my interest. How did those social and cultural circumstances arise? These and other questions occupied my thoughts. Even though most of my curiosity is calm, I look, know, and read. However, my curiosity about the origins of existence since childhood has remained.

I learned about public health in professional subjects during my studies. My curiosity about life and the world remained unsatisfied, even though it helped my survival and social service. I took an interest in books that illustrated existence and the cosmos. Literature initially attempted to ease curiosity while learning, but it could not. That is, literature only calmed one layer of interest.

It was burning like a fire inside a husk. That is why I took anthropology, sociology, population studies, and psychology course. I got answers to many of my questions. I became acquainted with modern field experience to quell the excitement in my mind. As a result, it is much easier to get information about scientific knowledge and hypotheses. However, my childhood fascination with creativity has not faded.


Kirat Mundhum, or the Vedas, has piqued my interest since childhood. As a result, I have collected study materials from elementary school from Mundhum, Veda, and Kirat literature. I was determined to learn everything I could about it from a young age that may come to use in the future. In addition, I had a shop in my home where there were some Kirat Limbu texts among the books for sale. I have carefully kept a copy of those books unavailable now in the market. Those products are now beneficial to me.

There are many study materials available on Kirat Limbu now in the market. However, these texts are written by writers from a political and strategic perspective.

Inspiration behind the book

The subject of writing genealogy came up one day. A society asked, advised, and forced me to write Phyang Samba’s genealogy by drawing 10-15 generations. They asked me to write a genealogy with a Mundhum and history, Mewa Khola Lingthang Mangena Yak showing Munatembe, Phyang Samba’s birthplace. I got the caution that displaying a broader genealogy could start an argument.

However, I was persistent about not letting my thirst for learning die. So, their demands or assumptions did not affect me. I proceeded with my role to conduct holistic and multidimensional research from a Socio-Cultural Anthropological standpoint. Since this is research, not an issue of agreement or disagreement, I must bring what appears in a report to the public. Thus, I requested them to give me the data I needed for my research.

Anthropological studies look at behavior and compare the human race rather than focusing on one race. The research has assessed human history by studying specific species and linking local information to the comparison. The research used a comparative analysis approach.

The study has related existing data and hypotheses to statistics, figures, and arguments. It also compared and contrasted descriptions with current facts. It has been primarily concerned with anthropological concepts and research methods. Other than anthropology, this paper contained ideas and insights from other areas.

Why Anthropology?

Anthropology considers three dimensions when researching (Rey, 2010). Cultural relativism is the first dimension. We can understand a community through research by using cultural meaning from the perspective of the concerned indigenous. The second dimension compares the elements, structures, traits, growth, and actions of other ethnicities and castes with the culture under the Cultural World (Cultural Universals).

Global citizenship considers the entire world a city and each community individual (Cosmopolitan). The third dimension of anthropological research studies the creation and actions through a collective point of view.

The anthropology concepts and beliefs mentioned above have built the present study. First, Phyang Samba culture, including Mundhum, is interpreted and analyzed from an ethnic standpoint. Then, a historical examination established Phyang Samba near Yakthung, Rai, and Sen.

To compare growth and behavior with other distant tribes, such as the Kirat, Khas, Kashi, Kashyap, and Sumer, studied. Furthermore, the study traced back to the Kashi (Ark-Bhag), Gut (Kutik) Gotra mixed Shak-Kashi to Kirat’s elder Kurma (Sumer) dynasty.

Finally, a quick sketch was drawn through Mesopotamian history, and revisiting the linguistic tour of Kirat, Kashi (shak/ kath/ khas), and Kashi (Kashyap/ kachchap) has been reported. In either case, the research seeks to assess Phyang Samba as a member of the global human community.


“For those who open their eyes, the sun rises,” Henry David Thoreau says. This writer’s attempt is nothing more than a wake-up call. Every day, I try to open my eyes by hearing, seeing, experiencing, looking for, and testing the universe.

The light on the further horizon captivated the destination after reaching the hilltop with a distant view. I saw life in the eyes of the wishes and sight. When people’s interests and hopes fade, man’s path and destination will also disappear.

According to the study, Samba Phyang is a sub-clan of the Kirat Limbu tribe. In theory, the study develops pre- and post-genealogical diagrams. The genealogy provides a historical overview. In genealogical writing, the researcher was advised to add the date of birth or death.

Firstly, such information takes time to come by. Another consideration is that if someone creates a genealogy in a book and presents a large amount of data in one place, it is now likely unsettling to keep it for technical reasons.

However, Information technology can solve it to some extent. It can digitize genealogy and save more information, such as births, deaths, photographs, and brief descriptions. The author is taking consultation with IT experts in this area.

Even though I worked on the text for about five years, many errors may have been made. I would appreciate it if you could forgive me for any unintended flaws beyond this author’s capabilities. I would appreciate it if you could make some constructive suggestions.

Study tools

The Samba Phyang genealogy draft was the basis of the study. It was first published in 1999, compiled by Aita Raj Phyang Samba, with Nawa Raj Subba serving as editor and publisher. The researcher completed the second round of data collection.

During the second phase of the analysis, my brother Dhirendra Raj Phyang was instrumental in gathering data. I appreciate his help in contacting people in various locations. Kaushal Raj Subba and Nischhal Raj Subba assisted with office work consultation and information organization.

The thesis attempted to bring as much scientific essence into practice as possible. It is saying that a writer should write without bias and honestly. While it is not entirely probable, I have given it my all. So, I have faithfully preserved the author’s viewpoint and conclusion based on my findings.

I researched and examined without regard for political or strategic considerations. I wrote without any ethnic discrimination or bias. Academic ideals and norms have been essential to me. I have not done any ethnicity, community, lifting, or falling work on intention. If the book offends anyone, I apologize. Please consider this effort to be a study.


In a nutshell, this is an anthropological study of the Kirat Limbu based on the Phyang Samba ethnicity. Since this is a comparative analysis, I hope that book writers, teachers, and interested readers find it helpful. I’ll always pay attention to suggestions from readers and researchers.


Now, I want to express my gratitude to all the eminent authors and organizations listed under the heading “References” for their work in providing me with the information I needed to conduct the research.

I sincerely thank all interviewees and enumerators who participated in the study’s meetings and interviews. I also want to congratulate Hamro Idea for publishing the book electronically—also, many thanks to the related individuals and organizations.

Finally, I am reminded of the profound words of the renowned philosopher and scholar Ayn Rand, who once expressed that the realm of truth is not accessible to all but exclusively reserved for those actively pursuing its discovery.

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba
Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal.

Book Introduction

Human existence is believed to be incomplete without the enrichment of culture. Some individuals wholeheartedly immerse themselves in their cultural surroundings, while others observe from a distance.

The ancient Kirat civilization of Nepal predates any religious texts we have. Unfortunately, their profound cultural wisdom has primarily faded, leading to a disheartening void in our understanding of ancient knowledge. The plight of the tribal communities in the land nurtured by their toil and sacrifice is a cause for concern. Neglecting the valuable contributions of these tribal communities in the name of progress leaves us incomplete.

Through a thorough anthropological study of the Kirat Limbu community, we’ve arrived at factual and logical conclusions regarding the questions they’ve raised. This writer endeavors to share this information, driven purely by academic value and recognition.

Recognizing his responsibility, this writer, in the later stages of life, has felt a sense of urgency in preserving the positivity of research. The book is published to document synthesized knowledge based on trustworthy information and data, thereby sharing it with readers.

This book is expected to be a valuable resource for those seeking to understand the true essence of Nepali soil, to explore the rich Kirat civilization, its culture, and the intricate tapestry of ethnic issues—best of luck on this enlightening journey.

ISBN 978-9937-1-3552-8


The Inspiration Behind This Book
Table of Contents
Book Introduction


Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Kirat-Yakthung-Limbu
1.2 Kirat-Limbu Nationality
1.3 Kirat-Limbu Culture
1.4 Kirat-Limbu Religion
1.5 Language and Script
1.6 Rai and Limbu
1.7 Subba Surname
1.8 Samba Ethnicity
1.9 Samba, a meaningful phrase
1.10 Mewa Khola, the birthplace of Samba
1.11 Kirat
1.12 Yakthung
1.13 Limbu
1.14 Tribe
1.15 Athrai Hangpang

Literature Review

Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Mundhum
2.1.1 Chongbang Samba Mangena mundhum
2.1.2 Chongbang Samba’s Pung Mundhum
2.1.3 Saba Sammang mundhum
2.1.4 Mudenchhong Mundhum
2.1.5 Theba Sammang mundhum
2.1.6 Yuma Sammang mundhum
2.2 Religious and Cultural Background
2.2.1 The Hindu Etymology
2.2.2 Etymology of the Arya
2.2.3 Hindu Dilemma in Kirat
2.2.4 Pre-Vedic Faith Shaivism
2.2.5 Animism
2.2.6 Shamanism
2.2.7 Bon Religion
2.2.8 Shiva and Bon’s Philosophy
2.2.9 Hinduism
2.2.10 Islam derived from Shaivism.
2.2.11 Buddhism on indigenous culture
2.2.12 Background of Yumaism
2.2.13 Yumaism is Regional Culture
2.2.14 Christian Influence on Yuma
2.2.15 Political Influence on Yuma
2.2.16 Sattehang: Shaivite Social reformer
2.2.17 Sattehang’s Teachings
2.2.18 Political Historiography
2.3 History and Civilizations
2.3.1 History and Genealogy
2.3.2 Gotra Concept
2.3.3 Kashi Gotra
2.3.4 Lhasa Gotra
2.3.5 Kashi and Lhasa Gotra
2.3.6 Kirat, Licchavi, Sen, Khas
2.3.7 Kashi Ganga Plain
2.3.8 Dawn of Yaktumba
2.3.9 Mohenjo Daro-Harappa Civilization
2.3.10 Mesopotamian civilization
2.3.11 Chinese Civilization
2.4 Philosophy and Theory of Creation
2.4.1 Big Bang Theory
2.4.2 Human Origin and Development
2.4.3 Chronology of human development
2.4.4 Human Evolution
2.4.5 Evolutionary theory
2.4.6 Human Movement
2.4.7 Theory of the ‘Out of Africa’ Model

Statement of the Problem

Chapter 3. Statement of the Problem
3.1 Issues
3.2 Objectives of the Study
3.3 Research questions
3.4 Theoretical Framework
3.5 Limitations of the Study


Chapter 4 Methodology and Approach
4.1 Method
4.2 Approach


Chapter 5 Findings
5.1 An Overview of Ancient Ancestry (A)
5.1.1 Origin of human mundhum
5.1.2 The Idea of Science and History
5.2 Sen-Samba Genealogical Diagram (B)
5.3 Mundhum
5.3.1 Samba Phyang birth mundhum
5.3.2 Lagan Khopma Mundhum
5.3.3 Jutho Adhelle Mundhum
5.3.4 Senior Citizen’s Teachings
5.4 A Investigation of Tungdunge Mundhum
5.5 Sen Shreng Senihang.
5.6 Phyang’s development from Samba
5.7 Coinage of Phyang
5.8 Advancement of Phyang
5.9 Ling Thang Yak
5.10 Phyang Family Ancestry (C)
5.10.1 Phyang Family Evolution
5.10.2 Population
5.10.3 Phyang Samba living in Mewa Khola
5.10.4 Phyang Samba in Athrai Hangpang
5.10.5 Phyang Samba in Sankhuwa Sabha
5.10.6 Phyang Samba in Bhutan
5.10.7 Phyang Samba living in Panchthar
5.10.8 Phyang Samba family living in Sikkim
5.10.9 Phyang Samba living in Assam, India
5.10.10 Phyang Samba Population Relocation
5.11 Relationship Inconsistency
5.12 Pronunciation Errors

Discussion and Analysis

Chapter 6. Discussion and Analysis
6.1 Genetics unlocks the doors to Genesis
6.2 Archaeological Tracing in the Himalayas
6.3 Socio-Cultural Background of Samba Phyang
6.4 Linguistic Analysis
6.5 Genealogical Analysis
6.6 Analysis of Mundhum
6.6.1 Warakma Sammang Mundhum
6.6.2 Bhitapso Tambhungna mundhum
6.6.3 Chongbang Sermon Mundhum 1
6.7 Phyang Samba Rai in Sankhuwa Sabha.
6.8 Rai, Limbu Ancestral Relationship
6.9 Dhimal, Limbu Ancestral Relationship
6.10 Kirat Magar and Kirat Limbu
6.11 Kirat and Khasarat Ancestral Relationship
6.12 Greek Mythology and Saksak Mundhum.
6.13 An Appraisal of Munatembe
6.14 Lepmu
6.15 Origin Sites for Mundhum
6.16 Review of Madhes’s definition
6.17 Terai Etymology
6.18 Koshi, Mechi Etymology
6.19 Hangsenlung
6.20 Surnames Pronunciation
6.21 Mundhum lets us unite

Critical Analysis

Chapter 7 Critical Analysis


Chapter 8 Conclusion.
8.1 Thematic Synopsis
8.2 A Brief Suggestion
About Author & Publications


  1. Aita Raj Phyang Samba, the initiator of Phyang Samba genealogy (first draft) from Hangpang, Taplejung, Nepal.
  2. Man Bahadur Phyang Samba, Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal, who provided Phyang Samba Mundhum manuscripts.
  3. Tek Bahadur Phyang Samba, Dharan, Sunsari, now in the UK, a resource person.
  4. Mohan Chandra Phyang Samba, Mewa Khola Samba, Taplehung, Nepal, a Phyang Samba resource person.
  5. Dhirendra Raj Phyang Samba, A key facilitator, Hangpang Athrai, Taplejung, Nepal.
  6. Prem Phyang Samba, a resource person from Bhutan.
  7. Yog Raj Phyang Samba, a resource person from Sikkim, India.
  8. Ram Bahadur Phyang Samba, a resource person from Panchthar, Nepal.
  9. Mana Hang Phyang Samba, a resource person from Sankhuwa Sabha, Nepal.
  10. Chandra Phyang Samba, a facilitator from Lalitpur, Nepal.
  11. Kaushal Raj Subba, an IT facilitator from Mahalaxmi municipality-4, Lalitpur, Nepal.
  12. Nischhal Raj Subba, an IT facilitator from Biratnagar-5, Morang, Koshi, Nepal.

Universal Link

In a Memoir of the Public Health Expert
Kirat Limbu Culture - Anthropological Investigation