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Public Health Review Articles

The Philosophical Analogy of the Saksak Mundhum to Greek Mythology of Genesis Man’s Ages and Its Allegorical Notation (Review Article)

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba

Who was it that gave birth to existence and the universe? Curiosity is something that everyone has. It’s an age-old question with no clear answer. We’re reviewing myths for new information based on existing knowledge. Our forefathers and mothers wondered about this as well. It is impossible to know indeed what they were thinking. However, we discovered their expertise through folklore. Literary writers created stories with simile, sarcasm, and metaphors with symbolic significance from knowledge and wisdom. Shamans are singing the lyrics. In this way, people passed down creation stories. People of gold and Silver have been described by Kirat Saksak Mundhum, as has Greek mythology of human creation. According to legend, the two men did not succeed and clashed with the Creator. Then there’s the story of a guy built of clay, ash, sky water, and a crucifix in Mundhum. Greek mythology has more bronze, heroic, and even iron men. The myth provides crucial information if we take it as a message. Since the Man of Gold and Silver period, the Kirats and Greeks have lived together. Kirat split off and went east after the Bronze Age or Bronze Man. As a result, Saksak mundhum lacks ages of bronze, Heros, and Iron Man, as Greek mythology describes. Per the mythological study, the Kirat community in Nepal and India who believe in mundhum is a mixed-age group. Accordingly, philosophical analogy and evidence imply that it was made present by Gold, Silver, Alloy, and Iron Age humans. Article


Subba, N.R. (2022). The Philosophical Analogy of the Saksak Mundhum to Greek Mythology of Genesis Man’s Ages and Its Allegorical Notation. IAR J Huma Soc Sci; 2022; 3(3): 24-29

An Analysis of the Kirat Limbu Traditional Beliefs and Culture.

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba~


The review article provides an overview of the cultural developments of the indigenous Kirat Limbu community. The report comprehensively analyzes verifiable facts and evidence. It considers cultural, linguistic, historical, archaeological, and anthropological viewpoints. According to the Sanskrit book Yoginitantra, Kirat Limbu originated in Kushdesh, Africa. Persian history identified traces of Kirat Limbu’s ancestors in Mesopotamia. Linguistic evidence also connects Kirat Limbu’s ancestors to the Mesopotamian Lepmu race, which parallels Greek mythology. The history demonstrates that Kirat from that region with Shiva/Saba. They arrived at Saptasindhu and developed the Sindh-Harappan civilization, uncovered in excavations. They worshipped Shiva, Pashupati, and Shakti. Mundhum claims that their journey to Nepal took place via India’s Ganga lowlands and Tibet China. When they first arrived in Himalayan Nepal, their beliefs were Shaiva and Shaivatic-Bon. Hinduism developed after Aryan accepted Shaiva, renamed Sanatan, and introduced the Brahmin-dominated caste system. As a result, some Kirats became Hindus (Kshatriya). Kashi Limbu abolished wearing the threads Janai and Kshatriya castes for Kipat right but retained native Shivaism under the Yahang, Thebasam, Mundhum, Sattehang, and other names. Another branch imported Buddhist-Bon from Tibet to Nepal under Yuma/Lhasahangma. Thus, the Kirat Limbu beliefs and culture have evolved due to reciprocal influence and assimilation.

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Saint Phalgunanda prioritize the poor

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba~

An ethnicity’s religion manifests itself in its culture (Mulder, 1985). Religious faith passes down from generation to generation through life experience, perception, and society (Geertz, 1985). Religion and culture are thus inextricably linked.

The above-mentioned remark implies that a person of any faith or culture could be plagued by his family’s or community’s culture or religion on his ability to hear and seek information other than what he already knows or wishes to know. Tension, hostility, anger, and aggression are manifestations of human nature that have found a place in society as a result of an inability to think deeply, to reason.

It is sometimes said that studying the subject in-depth is difficult and challenging for the Kirat Limbu community. Phalgunanda, such, encouraged people to develop excellent character by living a simple lifestyle that included prohibitions on sacrifice and the use of alcohol, as well as non-violence. Imagined an ideal society that was both fair and peaceful. To listen to or read, they are really beautiful and appealing. Outright opposition is neither scientific nor sensible.

Mahaguru Phalgunanda Anniversary

Limbu’s ethnic lifestyle prevents him from putting Mahaguru’s teachings into effect. The Mahaguru’s teachings close the door to worship and consume meat by offering to the deity through Phedangba/ma, samba which dates back to the hunter-gatherer past. It also forbids family members from eating the meat of the sacrificial animals and birds as a substitute for the time-consuming and costly ritual. If someone follows the Mahaguru’s instructions, the worship routine becomes monotonous, unappealing, and eventually evaporates. We have a social belief that we should do it and take it. In the culture of accepting the offerings of the gods with the sacrificed meat, one should not hesitate to say that it is due to one’s taste and selfish soul.

The Kirat Limbu society of today is not uniform. Even yesterday, some people ran Subhangi, but the most were impoverished. Today, some villagers move to a foreign army (Lahore) to bring money and gold, but the majority of the villagers are poor. In the Kirat Limbu community, the party spends money and time on social rites like marriage and death. Society is also self-centered. Society says if you don’t arrange a good party like that, we won’t come. Following rituals, many Kirat Limbu become squatters by mortgaging their farms to the landlord. Some fell in Assam, Sikkim, and Bhutan, while others fell in Madesh. Kirat Limbu, who does not want to leave, gets forced to work as a servant in the homes of other wealthy Limbu or Khas Arya. The Mahaguru advised breaking this culture and style, but the selfish society favors the rich. Regardless of how good the advice is, society accuses him and attempts to stop him. The same thing is happening in the Kirat Limbu community now.

Society shows unconcerned about how poor people do rituals. Society obliged everyone to conform to social norms at all costs. Wealthy people want to show off their assets and make simple formality more expensive. They protest or become aggressive with a small amount of force. It is critical to raise public awareness by conducting a timely review of lifestyles based on the religion and culture of Kirat Limbu, such as uncontrolled alcohol consumption, banquets, and overeating. Through public awareness, it is also necessary to organize and control extravagant and costly activities. The community sees it as linked to culture, religion, and politics. In any case, the author recognizes that existing such expensive social formalities in the name of culture have hampered the Kirat community’s social, economic, and intellectual development.

Under the guise of religion, Mahaguru Phalgunanda’s life philosophy is an epochal social and political movement in the Kirat community. This system prioritizes the economically disadvantaged Limbu party over the wealthy or Subhangi Limbu. Kirat, who owns little or no land, would make social work such as marriage and death more affordable. Mahaguru’s guidelines cut the economic burden on the family. In the Kirat Limbu society, even such a system is not universally accepted. This scene is an example of social irony at work. People want to live in luxury.

In the name of existence and identity, Limbu society has been embroiled in politics and strategy for self-interest. From time to time, self-proclaimed leaders and political greed appear. They directly agitate and agitate Kirat Limbu when they fantasize about building a Kirat, Limbuwan ethnic state. Kirat, Limbuwan, and Kirat, Even members of major political parties, buy votes and gain power by deceiving and tempting the public. No political party or administration is working hard to remove the Kirat Limbu community’s superstitions and promote social uplifting. The hidden approach of a political leader is to spend money to become a leader and then earn cash after winning the election. Society’s attitude sucks in a medieval mindset. Caste, religion, and place have guided politics, rather than the party’s ideas and policies. Criminals, black marketeers, contractors, brokers, and capitalists dominate politics. Neo-capitalism is spreading across society. In addition, the communist government has failed to safeguard the working class. The government was unable to take socialist measures. In such a country, the Kirat Limbu community’s feudalist attitude and strategy criticize Sattehang as Hindu religion. However, Sattehang has pro-poor economic upliftment policies in society.

Kirat Limbu politicians have never appeared to think or act in the best interests of the underprivileged Kirat Limbu. Politics has made indigenous people an identity problem solely for entertaining elections and gaining seats in legislatures. In public, only attractive but deceptive political phrases are sung. The same political groups and leaders have produced a schism between Kirat and non-Kirats, or Limbu and Limboos. Religion has contributed to the rise of hostility instead of harmony in society. Phalgunanda’s philosophy of existence is pertinent in such a murky and dark Kirat Limbu political, social, and intellectual sky.

In short, when Kirat Dharma or Kiratsamyo is restricted to Sattehang Dharma, the meaning of the word Kirat is narrowed. Focusing on the Kirat word as a religion is not acceptable that historically Kirat proves race, existence, culture, etc. Kirat is a term that has been defined by theological, scientific, historical, biological, and archeological evidence and other sources of information. In different periods and regions, Kirat was known and called by many names. Thousands of its opponents become thousands of its friends over such a lengthy period. He would have given him a derogatory term if anyone ever called him well or wrote him. We cannot reach the depths of history if we cannot accept history’s good and the bad without prejudice. At the very least, keep in mind that the term Kirat refers to Limbu’s ethnicity and other ethnicities. As a result, it seems reasonable to associate the Sattehang name, route, and philosophy with Mahaguru’s coinage in history.

In any case, the Kirat Sattehang has flourished the Kirat Limbu language, literature, and economy. Sattehang has paid particular attention to excessive spending and show-offs. The Kirat Limbu community’s heritage and dignity have also been raised by national icon Phalgunanda. The notion and philosophy of Kirat Limbu being accepted by non-Kirat Limbu is a positive development for the Kirat Limbu community. It will be in everyone’s best interests to follow in his footsteps.

Saint Phalgunanda’s theological teachings are for helping the economically disadvantaged Kirat Limbu. It describes an ideological, judicial, and social movement. It is not only outstanding but also unrivaled in terms of purpose. After his death, the Nepalese government declared Mahaguru Phalgunanda, a thriving religious activist who brought social movement and change to Nepal, a national hero. Society will remember his sacrifice, penance, and service throughout history.

Source: ‘An Investigation of Kirat Yakthung Samba Phyang’

Writers’ Evaluation

Dr. Nawa Raj Subba ~

When it comes to acquiring the reference material necessary for writing indigenous history, studying the material of native writers presents a significant challenge. The writings of indigenous scholarly writers in studies are unreliable in a blink of an eye.

There is also a scholarly dispute about what kind of person a scholar or historian is right in historiography. Scholars remarked on the tribal author. I believe it is essential to bring it up here. Indigenous peoples are a backward group. Yesterday, writers wrote tribal history in an inequitable manner. The Adivasis’ most common complaint is that writers reported their accounts incorrectly and inadequately. Overall, the Adivasis are unquestionably a socially and economically underdeveloped ethnicity. By rising from this community, Adivasi Janajati writers have pushed forward with the idea and purpose of rendering some benefit to this community. They have worked not only in their neighborhood but also in society.

Despite this, experts analyzed the indigenous scribes to discover if the facts they presented were correct. In this scenario, any writer’s personal and social character is also assessed. Therefore, when analyzing indigenous written material, both writers and readers should exercise caution. Non-tribal writers, however, have created more biased information on tribal issues. As a result, this pen believes that it is difficult to believe in the writings of both tribal and non-tribal authors.

Linda Gustavasan, a researcher, recently made a scathing statement about tribal writers Iman Singh Chemjong and Jash Raj Subba. The two writers listed are leading Limbu scholars whose writings also represent the Limbu community’s inner side and point of view. Both of them foresee the consciousness and awakening of their Limbu community, according to their writings. Both of them have been and are continually involved in ethnic organizations. This scene is unquestionably beneficial to the community. However, they seem to have directly or indirectly affected study or writing because they are also engaged in ethnic organizations. Authors seem inspired by their education in a Christian-run school (Gustavsson, 2013).

In Darjeeling, India, Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak investigated the role of indigenous authors in the movement. Indigenous writers that use “Strategic Essentialism” to write on ethnic issues are politically and strategically motivated, taking advantage of their place in contemporary politics. His words do not represent the ethnicity as a whole, but rather their own or the ideas of a small group of people (Spivak, 1988). We cannot refuse completelt\y this claim. It has some truth. Non-indigenous authors, however, write with a broad spectrum of prejudices. As a result, whether you are a tribal or non-tribal writer, you must pay close attention to the authenticity and context of content published about tribal concerns.

According to a study by Linda Gustavasan, the findings of a survey by Gayatri Chakraborty Spivak in West Bengal also apply to indigenous writers in Sikkim. What is the current trend among Nepalese tribal writers? What do they say or write? What do they mean when they say that? The aware reader must consider how they will gain from this. The condition and developments of indigenous writers in Nepal are similar to those in Darjeeling and Sikkim, both influenced by the strategic imperative. The study’s findings, undertaken from both an academic and an outside perspective, have called into question tribal writers’ writing on tribal concerns. Even if a political or strategic book or article creates a brief wave, the reader will eventually grasp the work’s true purpose and depth. You have to wait for a while before realizing that everything will open up when the time arrives.

We’re attempting to learn from this that any good writer should keep their study and writing free of political and strategic demands and pass on scholarly and intellectual information to the reader. The reader should also introduce the author and only form a judgment based on correct analysis by determining whether politics or strategy guided his writing.

(from ‘An Investigation of Kirat Yakthung Samba Phyang’)

मैवाखोलाले बगाएको दासीको प्रेमकथा

डा. नवराज सुब्बा

परिचयः यो सत्य घटनामा आधारित एक कथा हो । यसलाई नेपालको सामाजिक इतिहास भने पनि हुन्छ । नेपालको सुदूर पूर्वी हिमाली जिल्ला ताप्लेजुङको चाँगे मैवादोभानमा करिव एक शय वर्षअघि यो घटना भएको थियो । तम्बरखोला र मैवाखोलाको दोभान याङमानेमा बसोवास गर्ने एक नेवार परिवारमा घटेको घटना हो यो ।

संस्मरणात्मक लेखको रुपमा घटनालाई प्रस्तुत गर्दैछु । परिघटनाको विश्वसनीयता र आधिकारिकता कायम रहोस् भनी यसका पात्रहरुको परिचय, सन्दर्भ, परिवेश जानकारी दिएको छु। यो लेख सामाजिक अध्ययनार्थ कुनै शिर्षकबाट साभार गरिएको रचना होइन । यद्यपि सामाजिक अध्ययनका विद्यार्थी, अनुसन्धातालाई सघाउने विषयवस्तु हो ।

पृष्ठभूमिः कुनै साहित्यकारका लागि यो घटनाक्रम एउटा प्रेमकथा बनाउन सकिने राम्रो प्लट नै हो । यसमा काल्पनिकता मिसाएर, बिम्व थपेर, अलङ्कारले एक सुन्दर प्रेमकथा बनाउन सकिन्छ । तर मभित्रको अनुसन्धान चेतनाले मलाई त्यसो गर्न दिएन । स्थानीय भूगोल, प्रकृतिक अवस्था, समुदायको अस्तित्व जीवन्त बनाइराख्न घटनाक्रमलाई जस्ताको तस्तै राख्न उचित सम्झें । हुन त यसमा मैले मुख्य पात्रको बिम्व कल्पना गार्दागर्दै केही मात्रामा भावना मिसिन गएको छ । यसमा सचेत हुँदाहुँदै पनि मैले घटनालाई प्रभावकारी बनाउन पाठकलाई साहित्यिक स्वाद पस्केको छु ।

कथाका मुख्य पात्रसित यो लेखकको भेट भएको होइन अर्थात् आफैले देखेको पनि होइन । उनको परिवारसित सम्बन्धित व्यक्तिसित मात्र यो कलमको साक्षात्कार भएको हो । पारिवारिक सन्दर्भमा कुरा चल्दा घटना चाल पाएको हो । यो कुरा मनका कुनामा गाँठो परेर बसेको रहेछ । त्यो घटनासंग जोडिएका परिवार जीवितै छन् । घटना घटेको स्थल पनि उस्तै छ तर कथा हराएको छ ।

Continue reading मैवाखोलाले बगाएको दासीको प्रेमकथा

भाषाशास्त्री प्रा. बालकृष्ण पोखरेलको मानवशास्त्रीय दृष्टिकोण

डा. नवराज सुब्बा ।

नेपाली बाङ्मयमा भाषा अध्येताका लहरमा छुटाउनै नमिल्ने नाम हो भाषाशास्त्री बालकृण्ण पोखरेल । एकथरी भाषाविद् नेपाली भाषालाई पहाडी हिन्दी मानेर भारोपेली परिवारभित्रको एक भाषाको रुपमा चिन्दछन् । अर्काथरी भाषाविद् नेपाली भाषालाई संस्कृत र हिन्दीको एक भाषिकाको रुपमा समेत देख्दछन् । वि.स. २०१३ सालमा संखुवासभाबाट ‘नौलो पाइलो’ पत्रिकाबाट बालकृष्ण पोखरेल, बल्लभमणि दाहाल, कोशराज रेग्मी, तारानाथ शर्मा र चुडामणि रेग्मीले संयुक्त रुपमा नेपाली झर्रोवादी भाषिक अभियान आरम्भ गर्नुभयो (न्यौपाने, २०७५)। वि.स. २०६३ सालमा आन्दोलनको स्वर्णजयन्ति विशेषाङ्क प्रकाशित भइसकेको छ । उहाँहरुले नेपाली भाषालाई संस्कृतबाट प्रभावित तर भिन्न प्रजातीय मौलिक खस भाषालाई नेपालको राष्ट्रभाषा दावी गर्नुभएको छ । नेपाली भाषामा नेपाली माटोको सुवास आउने झर्रा लवज मिलाएर नेपाली भाषामा मौलिकता थप्ने काममा भाषाशास्त्री पोखरेलको समेत बलियो हात छ ।

Continue reading भाषाशास्त्री प्रा. बालकृष्ण पोखरेलको मानवशास्त्रीय दृष्टिकोण

The Relation between Depression and Water Insecurity in Uganda.

A study has shown a very interesting finding of depression in Africa. Women residing in water inadequate areas suffered from depression. The study finds an association between depression in women and household water insecurity. The women associated at 70% greater risk in water insecurity rural Ugandan areas (Cooper-Vince et al., 2018).
Uganda developed a reliable and valid tool to measure a Water Insecurity in Southern Uganda. The tool Household Water Insecurity Access Scale (HWIAS) used to measure water insecurity in the households(Swindale & Bilinsky, 2006). The tool had an 8 self-report and 8-item measure of household water insecurity with score 0-24. The tool designed to bring out perception of the quality, the quantity of water, and anxiety about the uncertainty of water (Tsai AC, Kakuhikire B, Mushavi R, Vořechovská D, Perkins JM, McDonough AQ, 2016).
The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-Depression Subscale (HSCL-D) assessed the depression in the past week. The HSCL-D has 15 item of self-report symptoms of anxiety and depression.
This study finding suggests the need for focal screening of depression in water-deprived households. It indicates that water facility will improve the women’s mental health (Cooper-Vince et al., 2018). We can apply the variables in the study to assess the mental health state of women living in water insecure areas in Nepal.
Continue reading The Relation between Depression and Water Insecurity in Uganda.